He also called the Diadochi Period "the Diadochi War Period" (Zeit der Diadochenkämpfe). He had named no clear successor and the Macedonians quickly began to argue over the fate of the empire. Perdiccas' marriage to Alexander's sister Cleopatra led Antipater, Craterus, Antigonus, and Ptolemy to join together in rebellion. Craterus was an infantry and naval commander under Alexander during his conquest of the Achaemenid Empire. T/F. The Ptolemies lasted longer in Alexandria, though as a client under Rome. Alexander tried to establish Greek customs and culture into the empire he took over from Persia. Need a reference? Alexander's empire stretched from his homeland of Macedon itself, along with the Greek city-states that his father had subdued, to Bactria and parts of India in the east. He avoids Droysen's term in favor of the traditional "successor". Finally, Alexander opted to listen to his mother and summon …  He describes the Diadochi and Epigoni as "powerful individuals. Not sure about the geography of the middle east? When Alexander the Great died on June 10, 323 BCE, he left behind a huge empire which comprised many essentially independent territories. Though his distance from Babylon prevented him from participating in the distribution of power, Craterus hastened to Macedonia to assume the protection of Alexander's family. Ptolemy received Egypt; Laomedon received Syria and Phoenicia; Philotas took Cilicia; Peithon took Media; Antigonus received Phrygia, Lycia and Pamphylia; Asander received Caria; Menander received Lydia; Lysimachus received Thrace; Leonnatus received Hellespontine Phrygia; and Neoptolemus had Armenia. In the opening campaign against Byzantium he made Alexander "regent" (kurios) in his absence. Alexander earned the epithet "the Great" due to his unparalleled success as a military commander. Amidst the cheering onlookers Philip swore that Macedonia was not large enough for Alexander. Its chief office was the basileia, or monarchy, the chief officer being the basileus, now the signatory title of Philip. Making a comment that the man who was preparing to cross from Europe to Asia could not cross from one couch to another, Alexander departed, to escort his mother to her native Epirus and to wait himself in Illyria. See more Encyclopedia articles on: Ancient History, Greece. Alexander IV was the son of Alexander the Great (a Macedonian) and Alexander's wife Roxana (a Sogdian). Antigonus was charged with the task of rooting out Perdiccas's former supporter, Eumenes. Alexander’s Heirs offers a narrative account of the approximately forty years following the death of Alexander the Great, during which his generals vied for control of his vast empire, and through their conflicts and politics ultimately created the Hellenistic Age.. Offers an account of the power struggles between Alexander’s rival generals in the forty year period following his death A certain basic meaning is included in all definitions, however. Athens and other cities joined together, ultimately besieging Antipater in the fortress of Lamia. Doherty, Paul C. The death of Alexander the Great : what–or who–really killed the young conqueror of the known world?. Alexander entrusted Antipater with ruling Macedon in his long absence and he defeated the Spartans in 331 BC. Cassander was one of the diadochoi (“successors”), the Macedonian generals who fought over the empire of Alexander the Great after his death in 323. The Wars of the Diadochi mark the beginning of the Hellenistic period from the Mediterranean Sea to the Indus River Valley. In antiquity, the law of succession was usually dynastic and proceeded through family ties. This division was to last for a century, before the Antigonid Kingdom finally fell to Rome, and the Seleucids were harried from Persia by the Parthians and forced by the Romans to relinquish control in Asia Minor. Their son and heir, Alexander, was raised with care, being educated by select prominent philosophers. This major study by a leading expert is dedicated to the thirty years after the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC. Alexander was at the wedding banquet when Attalus, Cleopatra's uncle, made a remark that seemed inappropriate to him. After a time the king was assassinated. He never lost a battle, despite typically being outnumbered. In the Kingdom of Thrace, during the reign of Lysimachus—a successor of Alexander the Great who lived from 361 BCE to … Much of what we know about Alexander the Great is unreliable and steeped in myth; a lot of these mythologies were used by Alexander’s successors. The Diadochi (/daɪˈædəkaɪ/; plural of Latin Diadochus, from Greek: Διάδοχοι, Diádokhoi "successors") were the rival generals, families, and friends of Alexander the Great who fought for control over his empire after his death in 323 BCE. The league elected Philip as its leader in an invasion of the Persian empire. We've got you covered with our map collection. Notably in the Ptolemaic Kingdom, it was reported as the lowest aulic rank, under Philos, during the reign of Ptolemy V Epiphanes. Notably in the Ptolemaic Kingdom, it was reported as the lowest aulic rank, under Philos, during the reign of Ptolemy V Epiphanes. Antipater was a key figure in the rise of Macedon under Philip II and instrumental in the succession of Alexander III (the Great). Antipater was relieved by a force sent by Leonnatus, who was killed in action, but the war did not come to an end until Craterus's arrival with a fleet to defeat the Athenians at the Battle of Crannon on September 5, 322 BCE. In the formal "court" titulature of the Hellenistic empires ruled by dynasties we know as Diadochs, the title was not customary for the Monarch, but has actually been proven to be the lowest in a system of official rank titles, known as Aulic titulature, conferred – ex officio or nominatim – to actual courtiers and as an honorary rank (for protocol) to various military and civilian officials. After a period of short-lived attempts by Demetrius I, Pyrrhus of Epirus, Lysimachus, and others to hold Macedon, Antigonus II established himself as king. Philip is said to have wept for joy when Alexander performed a feat of which no one else was capable, taming the wild horse, Bucephalus, at his first attempt in front of a skeptical audience including the king. The actual outbreak of war was initiated by Ptolemy's theft of Alexander's body and its transfer to Egypt. He had acquired his expertise fighting for Thebes and Greek freedom under his patron, Epaminondas. c. Ptolemaic Kingdom. By 1898 Adolf Holm incorporated a footnote describing and evaluating Droysen's arguments. Antipater had been one of the few remaining individuals with enough prestige to hold the empire together. Without a chosen successor, there was almost immediately a dispute among Alexander's generals as to who his successor should be.  In an 1843 work, "History of the Epigoni" (Geschichte der Epigonen) he details the kingdoms of the Epigoni, 280-239 BCE. The Seleucid Empire was a Hellenistic state ruled by the Seleucid Dynasty, which existed from 312 BCE-63 BCE. These were their initial positions as Diadochi. Grote cites no references for the use of Diadochi but his criticism of Johann Gustav Droysen gives him away. In 336 BCE, at the age of 20, Alexander "received the kingship" (parelabe ten basileian). Not enough evidence survives to prove it conclusively, but enough survives to win acceptance for Droysen as the founding father of Hellenistic history. As of around 290 B.C.E., which of the following was NOT one of the successor kingdoms to Alexander the Great's empire? Brush up on your geography and finally learn what countries are in Eastern Europe with our maps. Feb 2, 2013 - Explore Clarence Liau's board "Alexander the Great and successors" on Pinterest. A compromise was arranged – Arrhidaeus (as Philip III) should become King, and should rule jointly with Roxana's child, assuming that it was a boy (as it was, becoming Alexander IV). He founded two cities there, Alexandria Nicaea (to celebrate his victory) and Bucephala (named after his horse Bucephalus , which died there); and Porus became his ally. Rising to his feet Alexander shouted, using the royal "we," "Do we seem like bastards (nothoi) to you, evil-minded man?" There is no uniform agreement concerning exactly which historical persons fit the description, or the territorial range over which the role was in effect, or the calendar dates of the period. All rights reserved. The Greeks of his time could only have dreamed, just ten years before, of the conquests that he would acquire over this grand expedition; in the span of a decade the Macedonian kingdom, once simply the great northern threat of the Greeks, became the rulers of the known world. The Unitarians, like Perdiccas himself, Antigonus and his son Demetrius, tried to preserve … He created the League of Corinth, which included most of the city states of Greece, including all the leading ones except Sparta. Copyright © 2012, Columbia University Press. The previous history of the Greek city-states and of the kingdom of Macedoniais covered elsewhere. And yet the faithless king fell in love with a young woman, Cleopatra. The news of Alexander's death caused the Greeks to rebel in the Lamian War. For a time, this brought an end to any resistance to Macedonian domination. Meanwhile, the news of Alexander's death had inspired a revolt in Greece, known as the Lamian War. Alexander the Great (356–323 BC) died suddenly at the age of 32, leaving no apparent heir or appointed successor. Diadochi (Διάδοχοι) is an ancient Greek word that currently modern scholars use to refer primarily to persons acting a role that existed only for a limited time period and within a limited geographic range. Diadochi ("successors"): name of the first generation of military and political leaders after the death of the Macedonian king and conqueror Alexander the Great in 323 BCE. They were met by an army commanded by King Philip Arrhidaeus and his wife Eurydice, which immediately defected, leaving the king and Eurydice to Olympias's not so tender mercies, and they were killed (317 BCE). She despised Antipater, and he referred to her as a "sharp-tongued shrew." One of the challenges that Alexander’s successors faced was to legitimize themselves as the heirs of Alexander in the eyes of the local populations. Macedon: Successors of Alexander the Great The Macedonian generals carved the empire up after Alexander's death (323 BC); these were the successors (the Diadochi), founders of states and dynasties—notably Antipater, Perdiccas, Ptolemy I, Seleucus I, Antigonus I, and Lysimachus. The Macedonian generals carved the empire up after Alexander's death (323 BC); these were the successors (the Diadochi), founders of states and dynasties—notably Antipater, Perdiccas, Ptolemy I, Seleucus I, Antigonus I, and Lysimachus. Infoplease is part of the FEN Learning family of educational and reference sites for parents, teachers and students. Alexander of Macedon was the son of Philip II (r. 359-336 BCE) who recognized that his neighbors considered Macedon a backward region of little importance and decided to change that view dramatically. These were the second generation of Diadochi rulers. Soon after the second partition, in 319 BCE, Antipater died. When Craterus arrived at Cilicia in 323 BCE, news reached him of Alexander's death. For example, George Grote in the first edition of History of Greece, 1846–1856, hardly mentions the Diadochi, except to say that they were kings who came after Alexander and Hellenized Asia. In the edition of 1869 he defines them as "great officers of Alexander, who after his death carved kingdoms for themselves out of his conquests.". A civil war soon broke out in Macedon and Greece between Polyperchon and Cassander, with the latter supported by Antigonus and Ptolemy. They had armies largely Macedonian and Greek in personnel, and most of them founded cities with colonies of their soldiers. The only precise date is the first, the date of Alexander's death, June, 323 BCE. Soon, however, Perdiccas had Meleager and the other infantry leaders murdered, and assumed full control. Almost immediately, however, there was struggle for the hold over Greece and even over Macedon itself. A well-timed invasion would have given Alexander's successor an enormous advantage, and, if successful, could have prevented the Roman Empire from forming, said Kenneth Sacks, professor of … The Wars of the Diadochi were a series of conflicts, fought between 322 and 275 BCE, over the rule of Alexander's empire after his death. After the revolt of his army at Opis on the Tigris in 324, Alexander ordered Craterus to command the veterans as they returned home to Macedonia. Birth. Perdiccas himself would become Regent of the entire Empire, and Meleager his lieutenant. Philip had made a state marriage to a woman who changed her name to Olympias to honor the coincidence of Philip's victory in the Olympic Games and Alexander's birth, an act that suggests love may have been a motive as well. Grote may have been right, but he ignores entirely Droysen's main thesis, that the concepts of "successors" and "sons of successors" were innovated and perpetuated by historians writing contemporaneously or nearly so with the period. The Battle of Ipsus at the end of the Fourth War of the Diadochi finalized the breakup of the unified Empire of Alexander. Infoplease knows the value of having sources you can trust. The Epigoni he defined as "Sons of the Diadochi" (Diadochensöhne). Helped secure the succession of the Macedonian throne for Alexander. Plutarch reports that Alexander and his mother bitterly reproached him for his numerous affairs among the women of his court.. Arrhidaeus, the former Regent, received Hellespontine Phrygia. and threw a cup at him. All these armies constituted a fatal drain on the population of Macedon. a. Roman Republic . A series of six (as of 2014) international symposia held at different universities 1997–2010 on the topics of the imperial Macedonians and their Diadochi have to a large degree solidified and internationalized Droysen's concepts. Lendering, Jona. So great was the quarrelling that Alexander’s body was left unattended for many days in the Babylonian heat. By that time Philip had built Macedonia into the leading military state of the Balkans. Following Ptolemy’s successes in the Wars of the Diadochi, Seleucus, then a senior officer in the Macedonian Royal Army, received Babylonia. The institution of the companion cavalry or "Hetaĩroi" (Ancient Greek: ἑταῖροι) gave the ancient Macedonian army a flexible capability in this regard. A parallel flexible structure in the Achaemenid army facilitated combined units. The inebriated Philip, rising to his feet, drawing his sword, presumably to defend his wife's uncle, promptly fell. a. Roman Republic. It deals with the emergence of the Successor monarchies and examines the factors which brought success and failure. Macedonia’s victory over the Greek city states at the battle of Chaeronea (338 BCE) made Philip, king of Macedonia, the most powerful figure in Greece. Craterus and Antipater defeated the rebellion in 322 BCE. FEN Learning is part of Sandbox Networks, a digital learning company that operates education services and products for the 21st century. Originally the Epigoni (/ɪˈpɪɡənaɪ/; from Ancient Greek: Ἐπίγονοι "offspring") were the sons of the Argive heroes who had fought in the first Theban war. Alexander Was Wary of Those Around Him Alexander had potential rivals executed in order to secure the throne. They are not necessarily significant or determinative of what happened next. 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